The First Geography Congress, which was convened in Ankara in 1941, at the conclusion of the research that had continued for a long time, separated Turkey into seven geographical regions. During the congress activities, the fact that Turkey is surrounded by sea on three sides, the presence of mountain ranges lying parallel to the length of the long coastline, the fact that these mountains separate the high, but slightly steep and uneven central section from the influence of the sea and because of this, factors such as the climate, natural plant cover and the distribution of types of agriculture, and the influences of these on the transportation systems and the types of housing between the coastal strip and the central sections, had been taken into consideration and it was possible to divide Turkey into four border and three inner regions. The first four of the seven regions determined were given the names of the seas which are adjacent to them (the Black Sea, the Marmara, the Aegean and the Mediterranean Regions). The other three regions were named in accordance with their location in the whole of Anatolia (Central, Eastern and South-eastern Anatolia Regions).
Stretching out on two continents, Turkey is a paradise where one can experience the four seasons simultaneously… Whether you are fond of art, history, archeology or nature, you will feel the happiness beyond desires and hopes during your stay in Turkey.
Surrounded by the crystal clear waters of a shinning sea at four directions, Turkey generously offers her 8000km long shores before your eyes. Turkey is also rich in flora and fauna.
Twenty fascinating civilizations render Turkey the heir of 10.000 years old history which has still been examined for further ancient secrets to be brought up into daylight. These lands inhale at any moment the mystery of the past through the existenece of the statues of gods and goddesses, temples, theathers, agoras, churches, mosques, medresseh, palaces and caravanseraies. Becoming a united whole of daily life and all other values, Turkey forms the ideal circumstances.
ART & CULTURE
Among the prominent statesmen of the 20th century, few articulated the supreme importance of culture as did Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, founder of the Turkish Republic, who stated: “Culture is the foundation of the Turkish Republic.” His view of culture encompassed the nation’s creative legacy as well as the best values of world civilization. It stressed personal and universal humanism. “Culture,” he said, ” is a basic element in being a person worthy of humanity,” and described Turkey’s ideological thrust as “a creation of patriotism blended with a lofty humanist ideal.”
To create the best synthesis, Ataturk underlined the need for the utilization of all viable elements in the national heritage, including the ancient indigenous cultures, and the arts and techniques of the entire world civilization, past and present. He gave impetus to the study of earlier civilizations of Anatolia — including Hittite, Phrygian, Lydian and others. Pre-Islamic culture of theTurks became the subject of extensive research which proved that, long before the Seljuk and Ottoman Empires, the Turks had already created a civilization of their own. Ataturk also stressed the folk arts and folklore of the countryside as a wellspring of Turkish creativity.
The development of painting, sculpture and the decorative arts had been arrested by Ottoman officials, who claimed the depiction of the human form was idolatry, but these arts flourished during Ataturk’s presidency. Many museums were opened and architecture gained new vigor. Classical Western music, opera and ballet, as well as theater took impressive strides.Several hundred “People’s Houses” and “People’s Rooms” all over Turkey gave local people and youngsters a wide variety of artistic activities, sports and cultural affairs. Book and magazine publication enjoyed a boom. The Film industry started to grow. In all walks of cultural life, Ataturk’s inspiration created an upsurge.
Ataturk’s Turkey is living proof of this ideal — a country rich in its own national culture, open to the heritage of world civilization and at home in the endowments of the modern technological age.
GENERAL VISA INFORMATION FOR BRITISH PASSPORT HOLDERS
British passport holders travelling to Turkey require visa. Visas can be obtained at the port of entry in Turkey or from the Turkish Consulate General in London or Turkish Diplomatic Missions in other countries.
Sticker type visas are issued at the port of entry and allow staying in Turkey for up to 90 days. It costs £10. If there is more than one person travelling on the same passport, each individual is liable to pay the visa fee. This type of visa does not permit to engage in paid or unpaid employment.
Those who wish to obtain entry visa from the Turkish Consulate in London should apply to the Consulate General. Visa fee is £40 and should be paid by postal order or cash only. A passport size picture should also be submitted during application.
It is compulsory to have a minimum of three months validity on your passport from the date of your entry into Turkey.
Travel document holders need to apply to the Consulate General in person with his/her travel document with a validity of at least 6 months, a passport size photo, fully filled application form, latest bank statement, a reference letter from his/her employer or school. The fee is 40 pounds sterling. All visas for travel document holders are single entry.